What is smart healthcare home ? Is it difficult to install smart health home?The problem of the aging of the population is particularly sensitive today, it logically leads communities to think of new solutions so that people with loss of autonomy can stay at home in the best conditions of comfort and security.
This contribution to a state of the art of home automation aims to help said working group to explore one of these areas of work, namely the concept of “increased home” and the development of “home support »Of people with loss of autonomy associated with it.
By looking at the etymological definition of the word “home automation”, formed from the Latin “Domus” (the family home) and the suffix “tick”, which connotes electronics, computer science and automation, we can assimilate home automation to all the new technologies present in the home, information and communication technologies (IT for the home). In this document, we will only discuss the description of home automation associated with residential housing. In a broader sense, these technologies concern both residential and working housing, and by extension any building or network of buildings in the tertiary sector (offices, shops, cultural and leisure centers, hospitals, retirement homes, etc.). These technologies can be grouped under the term of building root.
It has now been almost 25 years (early 1980s) that we began to speak of the term home automation and that it is presented to us as the unifying and innovative element of our interiors of tomorrow. By force, home automation ended up having a negative resonance, unsuccessful applications (phenomenon of gadgetization), functionalities too complicated to use, insufficient reliability, are some reasons. And yet, still perceived under this label 10 years ago, home automation has evolved to find its way. Indeed, its use has been considerably simplified, the technical aspect is now disappearing behind the product effect, which itself is the bearer of new services.
We are therefore beginning to see today the applications that these techniques will allow tomorrow, in our daily life.
This new boom in home automation is explained by the emergence of transverse fields of application such as energy: the fairly recent awareness of energy issues logically pushes home automation to the front of the stage as it has so much to contribute in this domain ; but also the field of health and more specifically that of Home Support for people losing their autonomy.
Indeed, in these specific cases, we observe that the “gadget” aspect of home automation is completely erased and that it is then perceived as a technological solution responding to a real need.
The concept of “home automation” as it will be understood throughout this study should first be posed. Indeed, if home automation remains so vague for a large part of the population, it is also because no professional really agrees on the exact perimeter that it covers. So here we bring our vision established according to 4 levels of perimeter, namely:
Technical subsets:these are the basic building blocks of home automation. It includes all categories of technological innovation products that can be cited as an integral part of home automation.
The concept of atmosphere creation：this second scope makes it possible to group the different technical sub-groups into categories of Comfort, well-being and Security: Thermal, Acoustic, Visual, air quality, security, ease, emotivity, mobility; and together form the notion of creating an atmosphere within the home. They create the conditions for the development of user activities within the home.
User activities： here we are interested in the activity of the user in his home. That is to say that beyond the first perimeter of “atmosphere creation” developed above, we regroup the technical sub-assemblies but this time in relation to the very activities of the users. It is another approach which therefore makes it possible to see home automation as a vector of application for domestic (and or professional) work and for leisure, in particular digital leisure, for communication, for energy savings, etc. .
The concept of service：that is to say, we are seeking precisely to highlight here, “home automation in the service of …” or instrumental vector of this service. For residential housing, four fundamental areas have been identified, namely home automation for digital entertainment, security, energy savings and finally that which is the subject of this document, namely the home support and home hospitalization.
All of the elements developed above are illustrated in the following figure where we therefore show both the technical, functional and service scope of health home automation.
Figure 1 Smart Health Home Technology – service Connection
This approach makes it possible to reverse the technological approach of home automation into an approach centered on the needs and desires of the users, more precisely by being interested in the usage and organization aspects by going beyond the simple ergonomic aspects by looking at the social aspects, economic, environmental and societal.
In this document we will focus on services contributing to the “home support” of people losing their autonomy, but without losing sight of the fact that these services are related to leisure services, energy saving etc. Only a systemic vision of these questions can allow a global consideration of these questions, putting in perspective contradictory, even paradoxical situations. The linear formula of the document obliges to take into account the elements one after the other, the reader should not forget to link to understand.
First, this document will take a quick tour of major technological developments in homes in recent years to show why home automation is coming back to the fore today and how it is a real contribution to everyday life. The term “Convergence” is a term that has come up repeatedly in recent years, so it makes sense, at a time when everything is digital in our homes, to wonder if “home automation” also fits into this logic of convergence. It is therefore in this first development that we will expose our detailed vision of home automation in the broad sense.
After this first part dealing with home automation and its integration into the current technological landscape, we will make a state of the art both technical and technological home automation. We will describe what a home network is in order to better understand how a home automation network is integrated within this network.
Then in a second chapter, we have chosen to describe the different technical subsets of home automation. This chapter will be broken down into three sub-parts that make up a home automation system. Namely, the effectors which constitute the operative part of the system; the control elements (all of the control devices ranging from a simple switch to the light sensor coupled with a presence sensor); and finally, the communication brick which creates the link between these two elements.
Figure 2: Functional organization
Each of these parts describes precisely, from a technological, functional point of view and the problems it generates. Also in this second chapter devoted to the state of the art, we will end with a description of home automation technologies, in particular those relating to home care for people with loss of autonomy (dependent elderly people, people with disabilities , people with long illness,…)
A third chapter describes both industrial and economic players in this field; we will focus our attention on the Aquitaine region.
After this overview of home automation and its players, we finally develop the challenges of home maintenance. A state of the art of projects centered around home care in France and in Europe is the basis of this chapter. An analysis of these projects allows us to develop the fundamental elements to take into account for this type of project.
What you will learn
- 1 EVOLUTION OF THE PERIMETER OF HOME AUTOMATION
- 2 STATE OF THE ART TECHNOLOGY
- 3 TYPOLOGY OF THE MAIN INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTORS
- 4 SMART HEALTH HOME SUPPORT, INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
1.1.1 EVOLVING SOCIETY … HABITAT ALSO
Our lifestyles evolve, influenced by numerous technological and sociological evolutions and our houses, reflect these mutations and tend to be composed progressively of ever more communicating objects which will be brought to exchange between them within a more domestic network. in addition perfected.
In 30 years, telephony access methods have diversified dramatically, but, in addition, operators have offered convergence offers combining fixed and mobile technologies.
Today, get information on the Internet, communicate via instant messaging software (Windows Live Messenger, Skype), play on the network, consult interactive programs on demand, develop your digital photos without leaving your home, watch and share his photos on a “photo frame” have become possible. This field of digital entertainment is currently booming, all of this is made possible by
Internet which is now an essential medium. The television offer is evolving: TNT (Digital Terrestrial Television), offers Internet access providers (Tv ADSL), high definition (HD), repositioning of the Tv satellite offer.
The emergence of a web that calls itself collaborative or cooperative, web says 2.0, a web on which users are not mere consumers of content. Web 2.0 technologies allow users to produce their own content without the specific skills of an engineer. The technologies developed make it easier for as many people as possible to exchange and share this content: wiki, blog, social networks, etc.
This web 2.0 makes it possible to build specific environments for both the private and professional spheres: sharing of calendars, planning, online tools (word processing, etc.) and, more broadly, services that aggregate technological bricks made available to the larger numbers.
The issue of sustainable development accelerates these movements paradoxically by raising the question of the merits of these technologies in this context. A life cycle analysis integrating the design, use and recycling of products and services is essential.
Housing professionals must adapt to technological and societal advances and change their approach to housing, which can take time. In fact if certain technologies are made available to the greatest number of users, usage surveys show the existence of digital divides, both in terms of acquisition or access to technologies and in uses.
1.1.2 HIGH SPEED RATES
In addition to the evolution of infrastructures, the habitat is experiencing an evolution of applications which require ever higher rates, which far exceed those of the voice of the simple telephone line.
In 5 to 10 years, we can predict that access for Very High Speed will be a reality in homes, with connections of up to 100Mbits / s, while waiting for even higher speeds of 1Gbits / s which will arrive with the deployment of optical fiber (FTTH). The “network” prospects are therefore quite optimistic and will make it possible to provide more and more services to housing.
Many users already have ADSL Internet access associated with digital audiovisual services (TV channels or pay movies broadcast in “streaming”) where voice (telephony) becomes a secondary service. Soon, the download of an album of 50 holiday photos in standard definition (3 million pixels) will go from 1 hour (access to 128 Kbit / s) to 40 seconds (access to 10 Mbit / s). In the case of a nomadic worker or teleworking, the Internet user will use collaborative or data storage platforms. Optimal exploitation of these applications, however, requires a speed of 50 Mbit / s.
1.1.3 MORE AND MORE TECHNOLOGIES
The numbers prove it, homes are getting more and more computers, mobile phones, game consoles, set-top-boxes and televisions and other ever more innovative home theaters. We are also seeing more and more communicating objects appear in homes, the digital photo frame is a commercial success at the end of 2018 (forecast of 3.5 million units sold in 2018), the first communicating models are in the process of being to democratize little by little. The Nabaztag continues to be emulated in tech-savvy homes by now detecting RFID chips. The arrival of remotely controllable robots for telepresence services are now available.
More and more of these devices are connected to the Internet but still communicate very little with each other.
1.1.4 HOME AUTOMATION? (CURRENT TRENDS)
Long-promised home automation, which had to bring so much to our home, has never managed to establish itself massively in the home and today suffers from a negative resonance for the consumer. If the home automation of the 1980s has not penetrated the mainstream market so far, its future is now presented in a new light.
18.104.22.168 “PRODUCT” APPROACH OR ORIENTED APPROACH
The service approach began with the emergence of telematics in the 1980s with the provision of minitels. The services offered are always more sophisticated and today take possession of the habitat.
The major changes in the services offered to individuals are part of this general principle:
Video and music on demand over the Internet or other channels will allow individuals to watch the program of their choice in real time at any time of the day.
The medical surveillance of dependent persons, the guarding of real estate, will offer real-time assistance by specialized operators (health professional, surveillance company, etc.).
Distance learning applications via the Internet (e-Learning) will encourage participation in interactive courses from home.
Digital television (TNT or ADSL) distributes a hundred channels by twisted pair cable throughout the house, pending the deployment of HDTV.
Networking of remotely controllable household appliances (heating, alarm, lighting, etc.) is technically possible thanks to the new IPv6 protocol.
The demand for network games, whose support (100 Mbit / s) is now a standard on PCs and game consoles, made the success of the broadband offer.
The service is pushing for convergence by interconnecting the various technical subsets in the home. The mere existence of products does not bring this convergence because they are thought in isolation. The services that will develop will add value to the product but also require this convergence through the networking of products. The service design approach is interested in the goal pursued by this service and will in fact have to rely on an ecosystem made up of interrelated products allowing users to act in a social organization with its own dynamic.
There is no doubt that more and more communication functions will be transferred directly to the Internet in the future. For example, we are currently seeing that fixed and mobile telephony and the Internet will gradually converge, in particular by noticing the closeness of operators in these fields.
22.214.171.124 APPROACH TO THE CONCEPT OF CONVERGENCE
This term “Convergence” has come up repeatedly in recent years and it is true that when we talk about convergence in the field of new technologies, we naturally mean “Digital Convergence”; which can be defined as a concept which tends to merge information, support and transport:
Information is the set of content that physical objects of yesteryear incorporated (photos, music discs, paper documents, audio and video cassettes, etc.) and that digitization has “dematerialized” and therefore transformed into simple “data” (= series of bytes). In common language, content, information, merges with its medium. The photo indicates both the material object support, and the image revealed on the paper.
The medium corresponds to the “physical medium”, the receptacle memory for this information (hard disk or flash memory), in other words everything that contains an increasing number of bytes.
Transport is the passage of information from one point to another in order to be “consumed”, that is to say read, listened to, viewed, copied, … by any network, local or extended , private or public, on a communication medium (cable) or via a form of radio broadcast.
Concretely, the concept of digital convergence is reflected in the fusion of devices that were previously very different, such as the computer with the HI-FI channel, or the telephone with the television; all thanks to the digitization of content and communications.
By extension, convergence is indeed that of equipment and infrastructure, which allows an operator, for example, to move from a profession of content transporter to a profession of editor of its own content and of service provider.
One of the current fundamental vectors of digital convergence is IP (Internet Protocol), an open telecommunications protocol used on the networks (public and private) used to support the Internet. It allows you to split the information to be transmitted into packets, to address these different packets, to transport them independently of each other and finally, to recompose the initial message on arrival. Although this protocol is considered unreliable, it is now widely used.
The trivialization of broadband networks means that today, we are able to pass through this IP network services that previously benefited from their own network. This is the case for example of telephony, radio or more recently television.
126.96.36.199 HOME AUTOMATION IN THE ERA OF CONVERGENCE?
At a time of all digital and given this evolution towards digital convergence, it is natural to wonder where is home automation compared to this one.
Home automation has developed over several years in the fields of electricity, electronics and automation. Today, we are seeing a change of direction. All manufacturers are in the process of migrating their product range to IP gateways, which is why IT players are increasingly present around home automation. In addition, IP networks are becoming widespread in the industrial automation sector, and many of these manufacturers are interested in the building sector.
The major technological innovations are now focused on the services that we will be able to provide to the consumer around the product. Hence the need to develop communication gateways to the outside world. To be able to provide service, home automation and therefore the home must be able to open up to the outside world.
Just like telephony, television, IT, … home automation is increasingly focusing on this digital convergence. Home automation manufacturers are on the brink of crossing the technological divide that is IP, so they are logically faced with skills problems that they do not have. This then obliges them, more and more, to call upon service companies specialized in this field; the coming years will therefore certainly confirm this trend, more and more IT and network administrators will logically integrate these companies, and we will then be able to observe a gradual migration of all of these product ranges towards objects of more and more communicative.
188.8.131.52 THE EXAMPLE OF SHARED PLANNING
The example of shared planning can be taken to support this notion of convergence. At a time when the energy performance of the building is at the heart of the debates, one can very easily highlight the need to make both home automation and computer systems converge.
Indeed, a management of the occupation of the different rooms of a building is carried out using a shared planning type device, one can imagine sharing this shared planning with home automation elements (presence detectors for example) deployed in the rooms of this building and thus make it possible to detect the presence or not of people in the premises and thus interact directly with the lighting, heating and even shutters system. Weather services available on the web make it possible to obtain forecasts to anticipate the heating strategies to be implemented in order to optimize energy savings according to the desired comfort.
This is one example among many possibilities where it is very easy to demonstrate the need to develop this convergence between IT and home automation. Home support is also an example that requires this convergence.
Within a home, the home network can be divided into four “subnets” among which are the electrical, home automation, multimedia and communication networks. It should be noted that this home network is here simplified and concentrated on the “electrical and electronic technological part of this network”. Indeed, to be truly exhaustive, this domestic network also includes the water network, the heating network, air circulation network, waste network etc. The electrical and communication networks are interconnected with the operators’ distribution infrastructure.
Figure 3 – Description of a home network
2.1.1 ELECTRICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
An essential installation for the proper functioning of a home, it is on the one hand the external infrastructure for the electrical supply of the home but also the internal electrical wiring of all the parts grouped together on the electrical panel.
In this internal electrical network, we find both the power circuit (that is to say the power supply to the installation) and the control circuit (switches, dimmers, etc.). To summarize, the link between the switches and the circuits to be controlled is wired once and for all in the walls, with no possibility of evolution (unless work is started).
This type of installation is perfectly mastered by electricians.
2.1.2 THE COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE
This is the communication infrastructure that will “connect” the home with the outside world, so this includes both access to telephony (fixed and mobile) and access to broadband Internet.
184.108.40.206 THE BROADBAND NETWORK
When ADSL (2Mbit / s, 256Kbit / s) is available, it is currently the best compromise compared to low speed PSTN (56Kbit / s, 33.6Kbit / s) or Numeris (128Kbit / s, 128Kbit / s) and those by cable (2Mbit / s, 256Kbit / s) or satellite (512Kbit / s, 128Kbit / s).
ADSL is available in three different versions depending on the location of the accommodation (ADSL, Re-ADSL and ADSL2 +). With unbundling, it is possible to turn to the ISP of your choice and benefit from ADSL offers combining Internet access, unlimited telephony and television over IP thanks to “ISP-Boxes”.
ADSL can only provide high speed to households near a telephone exchange. Optical fiber (or FTTH) overcomes this limitation and offers even higher data rates over long distances (around 100Mbits / s). This therefore opens the way to HD TV type services on one or more workstations, instant download (even on large files), remote home automation supervision.
However, this type of infrastructure requires bringing fiber optics to the door of our homes, which requires huge investments on the part of operators and explains the rather slow deployment of this type of offer, however, 2019 and 2010 should be the real boom in this technology, which would pave the way for a multitude of new services.
The so-called 3rd generation (or 3G and 3G +) mobile telephony technologies allow access to the Internet from your mobile phone or laptop. At a time when many give up their fixed line in favor of a subscription to mobile telephony, these types of 3G / 3G + technologies are interesting solutions, alternatives to ADSL, to access the Internet, provided however covered by this type of network!
220.127.116.11 THE TELEPHONE NETWORK
The conventional telephone installation therefore relies on the wired connection of the accommodation to the operator’s network. We often talk about the RTC16 line.
The telephone line therefore reaches the accommodation and is distributed throughout the rooms via T-jacks.
This type of installation only allows low-speed exchanges and offers no scalability or possibility of reorganization. This is why this type of telephone infrastructure is tending to disappear, both on an inter-building and infra-building scale (emergence of “IP telephony”, quickly called “voice over IP”).
The existence of telephony using switched network technology in the 1980s (fixed telephone network PSTN) is under debate. Its complete disappearance is undoubtedly more problematic, but more and more subscribers are choosing the solutions of Internet service providers, which is not without problems for certain services requiring high quality telephone services. Doubling the communication channels by mobile telephony is therefore the essential solution (GSM or GPRS), especially for remote alarm systems essential for home support services.
2.1.3 THE MULTIMEDIA NETWORK
18.104.22.168 THE TELEVISION NETWORK
This is the network that will distribute the TV signal throughout the home, most antenna installers, or aerials, consider that the only connection solution is coaxial wiring.
If this is still the case for connecting the antenna or dish to the TV, it is no longer the case for the distribution system and the terminal sockets.
Different modes of access to television content are currently competing: the terrestrial antenna for analog television, replaced by Digital Terrestrial Television by 2012, the satellite dish, cable, ADSL, via the Internet.
Two technological developments are competing at the same time: the replacement of analog television by digital television, whether on the terrestrial or satellite network, making possible the appearance of new free or pay television channels; development of high definition television programs. The possibility of digital program recording according to user profiles allows you to create your own personalized programs and to separate the broadcasting times from the consumption times. The diversity of digital media (Digital Terrestrial Television, ADSL, Satellite) remains an obstacle for the user. The re-broadcasting of the program on the web raises the question of the convergence of the web world between the computer screen and the living room screen, traditionally television. Media center offers offer this convergence.
22.214.171.124 THE COMPUTER NETWORK
This is the internal computer network in the home, that is to say the network which connects all the computer elements present in the home, among these, we can list: Computer (s) fixed (s); Laptop) ; Tablet PC ; Ultraterminal; PDA or Pocket pc; Mobile phone ; Printer ; Office server; Home automation server; Multimedia server. These different devices are interconnected by wireless networks
(wifi) or wired (voice network gives image or carrier current).
126.96.36.199 THE AUDIO / VIDEO NETWORK
To be able to listen to music at home (or listen to the radio), it is always possible and still relevant to carry your radio or CD or MP3 player in each room of the house or install it everywhere in these parts. However, in this technological era, it is possible to pool all the devices and then deploy a sound broadcasting network.
The image is becoming more and more important in our daily lives and in our homes and becomes an element of comfort in its own right. Several televisions are now available in the same household (between two or three on average).
188.8.131.52 CONVERGENCE OF THE MULTIMEDIA NETWORK
It is observed that this type of network takes a long time to deploy in homes, the house must no longer have any TV or telephone socket, they are replaced by RJ 45 universal communication sockets connected to a communication box on which one can connect a television, telephone or computer. This infrastructure is therefore becoming a standard for all new construction having obtained a building permit (new and renovation).
By providing this type of cable installation upstream in homes, this first technical barrier to the very existence of a network is lifted, which leads housing to become more communicative and scalable. In this configuration, each RJ-4520 socket is directly connected to the communication box and can therefore evolve independently of the others (transforming a telephone set into a computer set therefore becomes very easy).
The infrastructure for Voice, Data, Images allows the distribution, as its name suggests, of three types of data: telephone signal, computer data and television, and allows maximum flexibility in distribution. Wiring is recommended, but distribution can also be done by wifi or carrier current.
This network therefore unifies all needs in terms of telephony, intercom, audio and video broadcasting, IT and television, depending on the sources (radio, satellite, ADSL, internet, or from local sources (computer, recorder, DVD, etc.). .) and provided that the convergence adapters allow it.
2.1.4 THE HOME AUTOMATION NETWORK
We can qualify as a home automation network the network that will bring together all of the technical subsets that we will detail in the next section. The equipment which will be described below constitutes home automation equipment. The home automation network proper is therefore the linking of these equipment, which beyond their own function, will see their capacities increased tenfold due to this networking, which leads to a complementarity of functions, which can be mobilized in view local or remote services.
It is undoubtedly the least deployed network at present in homes, its usefulness has so far not been demonstrated and often perceived as expensive (between € 5,000 and € 15,000 for a “classic” installation ), or in the order of 5 to 10% of the total price of a construction.
2.1.5 THE DOMESTIC NETWORK TODAY AND TOMORROW
The observation of the increase in the number of networks in residential housing shows that this trend is accelerating mainly by the entry of that of IT linked to the Internet.
Concretely, these networks are communication networks where we will be able to distribute the internet in several rooms of the home but also to constitute multimedia networks because several ISPs provide both a main decoder connected to the “telephone line” as well as ‘a television decoder. These two boxes being wired connectable requires deploying a dedicated cable or a wireless solution in the housing.
The multimedia network is naturally connected to the communication infrastructure, the home automation network is naturally connected to the electrical network. We have shown that current developments are driving the development of multimedia networks, in particular under the impetus of internet-related services: television and video on demand, etc. The same is true for home automation networks, by boosting services, notably linked to the liberalization of energy, which push operators to provide energy consumption control services. Since production is limited and overconsumption difficult to satisfy, operators must be innovative in order to satisfy their customers, both in terms of costs and in their ability to produce with acceptable environmental conditions. The new regulations will oblige users to reduce their consumption, if gains will be made by improving the envelopes of buildings, they will not be made without rationalizing consumption. Only the existence of a home automation network linked to communication networks for remote services can contribute to the achievement of these results with constraints acceptable to users, both from the point of view of good practice and technical conditions. Initial studies show that users are reluctant to depend on a third party since they do not feel competent in the event of a technical failure. Taking into account the lifespan of an electrical installation of a building, the lifespan of technologies must be related to that of the building for a reasonable acceptability by the users. The model of the car or the computer is not without leaving traces.
A home automation network interconnected with a control of networks inside the home (electricity, heating, water, waste, etc.) can be envisaged, whether locally or remotely. Service development is linked to this potential. We have outlined its contours for energy services, the same is true for home support services.
In this section, the different technical subsets are described by delimiting their functions by associating them with the most common materials. The following figure summarizes their connection constituting a system organized around the home automation network for the creation of atmospheres specific to activities within the home. We will first describe the effectors, terms used in robotics to designate the technical constituents whose role is to act on the work material to obtain the desired effect. By analogy, the building can be considered as a robot acting on its indoor / outdoor environment with its different effectors (opening, lighting, heating, etc.). In a second step, the control units and the interconnection networks will be described.
Figure 4- Interconnections of effectors and controls
184.108.40.206 HEATING / COOLING
A real topical subject and center of concern for the future, heating and more specifically thermal regulation, is one of the future axes of development of home automation. Without worrying about the thermal energy source, we can already plan an advanced energy management, based on the supervision automata. Through scenarios such as “leaving for work” or “vacation mode”, we are now able to provide thermal solutions which are in line with the new thermal regulation standards and whose aim is to reduce the energy consumption of our homes .
|User needs||Technological solutions|
Programmer or programming clock
Thermostat (programmable or not), regulator
Optimizing subscribed power
Load shedder, power manager
Manage according to tariffs – peak / off-peak hours (heating and water heaters)
Energy manager, tariff manager
Track your consumption
Table 1 – Heating and cooling
The new boilers are already communicating and the technology plans to allow the regulation of heating according to various data, such as opening sensors, presence sensors or natural external contribution (solar, geothermal, … ).
Figure 5 – Example of a regulator marketed by the company Delta Dore
Another technical subset also included in the scope of home automation, lighting is a rapidly changing sector. As a consequence of the new energy regulations, incandescent lamps will completely disappear from 2010) in favor of more economical lighting (Fluocompact, LED, OLED, etc.). Another consequence which also goes in this direction, the management of the natural contribution of lighting became compulsory for the buildings of the tertiary sector.
|User needs||Technological solutions|
Check in function:
– sunrise and sunset
– a person’s approach
– the presence of a person in a static position
– a fixed term
– its activity (intensity)
– predefined lighting atmospheres
– a defined progression
-Motion detector (photo, pyro, IR)
-Presence detector (IR beam)
-Dimmer + light manager
Mark out traffic (emergency or signaling)
Table 2 – Lighting
But outside this context, lighting is the common denominator for any electrical network in each construction, regardless of its location in the world. Necessary but also, and more and more, used in a decorative way, even therapeutic, home automation offers a wide range of solutions in this sector.
Figure 6 – Examples of playful lighting products (Living Color lamp from Philips), therapeutic products (“light therapy” lamp, still from Philips) and a twilight table module from Hager
|User needs||Solutions technologiques|
|Opening of active facades:
– associated with sun protectors
– interior blinds and curtains
– active windows
(Rolling and swinging shutter, awning, roof window)
Actuators (+ centralized control)
Garage doors, Gates, Gates
Actuators (+ centralized control)
Other equipment: screen / video projector, pool shutters…
Actuators (+ centralized control)
We can notice that what we call “active facade” finds its usefulness on two points: in the Global Energy Performance and in the visual comfort of the building. And so these active facades are then in direct link with other technical sub-assemblies such as heating, cooling but also lighting.
It is interesting to see the evolution of the actors facing this field of openings. Indeed, it is necessary to segment the actors who touch on this field, we find the “historical” specialists of the opening in itself (concerning the physical part) and the specialists in the control of these opening. For the first, we find companies such as Somfy or Franciaflex, whose core business is the hardware itself, and for the second, we find for example an actor like Delta Dore, whose core business is the ordering of these different elements.
It is interesting to see the evolutions operated by these actors: we realize that Somfy for example, has evolved in its product ordering technologies and conversely, the company Delta Dore has also evolved but this one towards physical equipment to pilot; in particular by the acquisition of a new subsidiary specializing in opening motors.
With regard to the last category of this table, we mainly find gadget equipment which becomes, in the logic of all home automation, motorized and automated elements.
Building manufacturers are pushing for the production of ready-to-install monoblock windows. These industrial strategies require numerous collaborations which condition the ability to interconnect these sub-assemblies to the home automation network.
220.127.116.11 OTHER FLOW CONTROLS
|User needs||Technological solutions|
Control its automatic watering
Motorized watering valve (+ centralized control)
Control its ventilation (single flow, double flow)
Panel control module (programmable controller)
Figure 7 – Konnex TXA-206B module from Hager, 6 outputs 10A module allowing, among other things, to control a watering solenoid valve as well as an 8 outputs module (ALB06121) of the Schneider Electric IHC system, one of the functions of which is to control the ventilation system
Complementary automations are necessary to control the air quality of buildings. This type of control is closely linked to the energy performance of the building in the context of low-consumption buildings. Heat recovery devices improve performance by performing the necessary indoor / outdoor air exchanges.
Controlling water consumption is another important issue (drinking water, recovery of rainwater).
Securing your home has become an element of home automation in its own right, it is a question of protecting the home from possible break-ins as well as reassuring residents, even during their absence! The residential security market is booming, as proof, the remote surveillance market has multiplied by 5 in 10 years.
|User needs||Technological solutions|
Prevent and protect yourself from an intrusion:
Opening, presence, shock, ground contact, motion detector
Presence simulator, presence detector coupled to lighting, siren (indoor or outdoor)
Prevent and protect yourself from the risks of domestic accidents:
– toxic gas and smoke
– freezer / fridge breakdowns
– power outages
– boiler failures
-Gas, carbon monoxide detector
-Power cut detector
Prevent and protect yourself from the risks of the swimming pool
Perimeter and volumetric detector
-Hygrometric sensor carried by the child
Alert, escalate information
-Central alarm, telephone transmitter, GSM transmitter, siren, light device
Several hundreds of thousands have already chosen to have their house monitored, the fear of burglary leads to the security system equipment!
Just as alarming when it comes to home security, a house fire occurs every two minutes. If 70% of fires start during the day, 70% of fatal fires in homes occur at night, for lack of warning. This is why we must install an Autonomous Smoke Detector-Alarm in residential dwellings. It should be noted in the United States 93% of homes equipped with Autonomous Smoke Detector and Warning and more than 95% in Norway and Sweden.
Figure 8 – Autonomous Smoke Detector-Warning of Legrand using wireless technology (In one By Legrand) as well as a TYXAL alarm center of Delta Dore, equipped with a siren and a PSTN telephone transmitter which allows configure telephone numbers and which is compatible with remote monitoring.
18.104.22.168 COMMUNICATING OBJECTS
M2M (read Machine-to-Machine) brings together solutions allowing machines to communicate with each other or with a central server without human intervention. According to Idate, a study and consultancy center, the M2M market could represent more than 220 billion euros worldwide in 2010, representing an annual growth of 49%. It is a booming market, driven by favorable technological and economic dynamics and its development will vary depending on the sector of activity. However, we can already-and already identify that of safety and health which are among the most promising …
At the “residential application” level, we can of course observe the same development of these communicating objects. Objects of daily life are equipped with communication solutions, such as boilers (Thermibox by ELM Leblanc which relies on M2M expertise from Webdyn), household appliances, etc. If the primary functionality of our domestic equipment yesterday remains the same, they see their capacities increased tenfold because of this “interconnection”. But we also observe many specific objects that appeared a short time ago.
Figure 9 – Nabaztag: tag, Nanoztag and the Mirror created by the company Violet as well as an example of a digital Wi-Fi photo frame and the ELM Leblanc thermibox which allows you to monitor your boiler remotely
These two examples of the Nabaztag and digital photo frames are very good witnesses to the rise of communicating objects. Indeed, the rabbit of the French company Violet has already sold nearly 250,000 copies since its launch in 2016 and sales of digital frames amounted to 3.5 million in 2018 alone, including a share of more and more important with a communication functionality!
2.2.2 THE ORDERS
Many devices are capable of controlling home equipment, which is why it was important to describe these different devices available on the home automation market, without which, no remote control action would be possible.
22.214.171.124 STATE OF THE ART IN HOME AUTOMATION CONTROLS
126.96.36.199.1 THE SWITCHES
Control of a lighting fixture or a power outlet
(infrared cell + light sensor)
Lights up when a person passes if the brightness is not sufficient and switches off automatically after a predefined period of time.
Triggers manually and goes out after an adjustable time on timer.
Indicator light switch / with status indicator
Switch illuminated with a small light when the circuit is off.
Capable of detecting a defined brightness threshold and triggering a lighting or automation circuit
Hourly / daily / weekly / yearly switch
Order one or more circuits punctually or by hourly, daily, weekly or annual programming
Figure 10 – Legrand offers the whole range detailed in the table above, in particular the transmitter-receiver invariator with status indicator (on the left in the figure above) and the timed switch (on the right) of the range Céliane
The switch occupies a new place in interior design today, the advanced functions coupled with an advanced decorative finish was initiated by the company
Legrand in France. They set up a concept of “store” in DIY supermarkets, it turns out that the sales volume has been multiplied by 5 in stores equipped with this shop. This example highlights the true potential of decorative finishes associated with economic functionality.
188.8.131.52.2 THE BUTTONS
Order, variation, bell, chime,…
Push button board
Gathering of functions
Automation control (Up / Down shutters)
Lighting or sound intensity gradation
Figure 11 – 4-channel transmitter push-button sold by Alombard, a Schneider Electric subsidiary using Alvaïs RF technology
184.108.40.206.3 THE REMOTE CONTROLS
Universal infrared remote control
Infrared equipment control
Radio remote control
Control of equipment by radio frequency
Infrared / radio remote control
Control of equipment by infrared and / or radio
Two types of “traditional” technologies exist for remote controls, including radio (for radio frequency) and IR (for Infrared). The advantage of radio remote controls is that you do not need to aim at the device to be controlled to control it. Infrared remote controls are used a lot in the world of disability (piloting of mobility equipment in particular) because they are in no case disturbed by another external infrared signal, which therefore gives a certain operating reliability for people completely dependent on this equipment!
Figure 12 – An example of the universal programmable MX 3000 remote control from Vity Technology which combines both radio and infrared technology
220.127.116.11.4 ORDERS WITH GRAPHIC SUPPORT
Control of equipment on the TV screen via the remote control
Programming, supervision, ad hoc commands, remote control
Supervision of punctual orders anywhere in the house, remote control
Supervision, universal remote control, home automation control, access to the local network, internet and all computer applications
IR / radio touch screen
Tactile control of audiovisual / home automation devices
IR / radio / IP touch screen
Tactile control of audiovisual / home automation devices and access to the local network and the Internet
Tactile control of audiovisual and home automation devices, access to the local network and to the Internet
Proprietary touch screen
|Touch control of audiovisual and home automation devices(Access to local network and internet if IP present)|
Personal Assistant – PDA
|Punctual order of audiovisual or home automation devices (IR, Wifi, Bluetooth)|
These are undoubtedly the control devices that are currently developing the most because they allow either to be able to reuse existing technological equipment to control this equipment, or to invest in equipment with much more extensive functionality than a simple remote control.
18.104.22.168.5 REMOTE CONTROL BODIES
Remote control of home automation equipment (heating, security, etc.)
Remote control and supervision (cameras, heating, security, etc.)
Two known communication devices, namely the mobile and portable telephone which make it possible to perform a certain number of actions remotely. While the functionality of the landline phone has been around for a long time, that of the cellphone appeared with the boom in sales of the latter. Beyond actions of remote control (outside the house), we have recently observed the new boom in local commands via the mobile phone and in particular thanks to the Apple iPhone which, by its architecture Open Source software, promotes the development of home automation applications: examples:
– New Lutron module to turn on / off / increase / decrease the intensity of a light bulb via the iPhone
– Bathomatic which allows you to control your jacuzzi via the Iphone
– Future application of Savant Systems which will soon market on the ROSIE Mobile App Store, an application that will control your home from your iPhone
22.214.171.124.6 THE SAFETY CONTROL BODIES
Control of an actuator requiring control (pool cover, gate, etc.)
Controls access to a place or the activation / deactivation of an alarm center
Control access to a place via a badge passed in front of a reader
Control access to a place using the person’s fingerprints
Various security control technologies exist, from the simplest (key box) to the most elaborate (biometric) and are increasing with the growth of the field of residential security.
Biometric readers constitute the technological innovation in this field, if the principle is indeed innovative, the mass deployment of these is not yet close to being finalized as the constraints and costs are important!
126.96.36.199.7 SENSORS / DETECTORS
Rain, Wind, Hygrometry, Presence, movement,…
Equipment control according to a threshold (humidity, brightness, movement, etc.)
So here we find the “indirect” control devices, namely on automatic detections reacting to a threshold defined beforehand. The main advantage of these detectors is therefore to anticipate a “risky” situation (bad weather, fall, etc.).
Commande à partir d’une impulsion électrique
|Equipment order by time programming
Commande d’équipement par programmation horaire
Commande d’équipement par la voix
And finally, we find in this section the other control elements that do not fit into any defined category.
Controlling home equipment by voice is a futuristic element that often comes up in people who are asked about home automation, but in general, existing solutions are not yet sufficiently developed to be able to respond to Reliably on demand, it is often difficult to manage several voices and to distinguish them from any background noise. This is a solution for people with disabilities or the elderly who have difficulty getting around. Finally, it should be noted that many disabled people will hesitate to use this device in the presence of other people, it is indeed not natural to talk to a machine, this is also valid for the elderly who could find themselves disturbed by having to give orders to a text-to-speech module. What seems to us to be an essential technological innovation is not necessarily the right solution for specific applications.
Figure 13 – Time programmer from Delta Dore (Driver 210/220/230 CPL) to control the heating by carrier current
What should be remembered from this table is the predominance and the increasing share of computer-based control devices (dedicated and / or touch screen).
Among all of these control devices, no one can claim today that they have found the control interface of tomorrow, however, it must be as reliable as possible and above all give the user the feeling of mastering rather than undergo technology.
To return to the specific case of home support, there is nothing to say either what will be the preferred command interface for these people. The touch screen, while it may seem like the ideal solution at first, is not that obvious. Indeed, just like the mouse with the computer where it is not obvious to everyone that when we move the mouse on a horizontal plane it moves it on a vertical plane (screen), the very evidence of ‘Going to touch a tab on a touch screen with your finger to navigate a menu is not a given.
This specific case of the control units shows the real need to carry out user tests and deploy usage laboratories.
2.2.3 AUTOMATION AND SUPERVISION
The automation functions will either be distributed on the controls or the effectors, or centralized on a PLC. The second solution has the disadvantage of increasing dependence on technical failure in the event of a PLC failure. Supervision is necessary for the provision of dashboards and is generally centralized.
2.2.4 THE COMMUNICATION BRICK, THE FEDERATION ELEMENT
188.8.131.52 NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURES
184.108.40.206.1 TYPOLOGY OF THE COMMUNICATION MEDIUM
The information exchanged, whether analog or digital, can be transported and transmitted by different media:
Figure 14 – The different communication media of a home automation network
To understand how it is possible to ensure the technical and functional coherence of a communicating installation, it is important to come back to the existing networking means. The network is either wired in nature, we find BUS (Binary Unit System = Bus control technologies, there are shielded twisted pair, coaxial cable and optical fiber) and PLC, or wireless in nature, in which finds the technologies RF (“Radio Frequency” which uses the hertzian waves to transmit the data) and IR, InfraRouge (light waves not visible, but perceptible in the form of heat).
It should be noted that in many documents, the PLC is found in wireless infrastructures. In fact, this classification mode is also possible, however, we no longer speak of a wired or non-wired structure since the PLC circulates on the cables of the electrical network. We are therefore talking about dedicated cable infrastructure (where we only find the command BUS) and wireless infrastructure (RF, IR and PLC).
- a) Power Line Communication
It is possible to centralize commands without deploying sophisticated cabling infrastructure. Whether in renovation, due to technical constraints, or in the new, for the sake of economy, the connection to the electrical installation of transmitters and receivers current carrier makes it possible to make the link between the systems to be controlled, the control units, IT and audiovisual equipment.
There are 3 types of carrier current, domestic, computer and audiovisual carrier current, which we will detail in the following:
Home automation carrier current: Technologies such as X10, In One By Legrand, Lonworks or X2D, are designed to control lighting, heating, automation, electrical outlets and security.
IT carrier current: Online carrier current allows the transport of computer data, thus making it possible to form a real local network connecting computer, printers, Internet access, multimedia server, touch screen, WiFi access point, etc.
Audiovisual carrier current: This carrier current is being developed and is based on the Home Plug AV standard to distribute sound and image throughout the building via the electrical network. It incorporates the features related to PLC for IT.
Home, IT and audiovisual carrier currents use different frequencies, which allows them to coexist perfectly in the same electrical installation.
It should be noted that these three types of carrier current can be grouped into two categories, namely low-speed PLC and high-speed PLC. Indeed, what characterizes these two categories is the type of information conveyed; domestic carrier current uses the network for the purpose of ordering equipment or providing feedback that does not require significant data rates (low-speed PLC), unlike computer and audiovisual carrier currents which, carrying data, need PLC broadband.
- b) ) WIRELESS SOLUTIONS
Networking of equipment can also be done without any cables, infrared or radio.
Here is the list of the most common wireless networks in the home:
Wireless remote controls: All the houses are already equipped with radio or infrared remote controls allowing to control the shutters, the garage door, the security system, the hi-fi system or the television. Their multiplication often requires replacing them with universal remote controls. Some mixed models are capable of controlling both infrared and radio equipment.
Wireless computer network: Bluetooth technologies make it possible to create mini wireless networks to replace the wiring between computer or electronic devices. Wifi, meanwhile, allows you to extend a local network to the whole house.
Wireless telephone network: Wireless telephony has become widespread. A base connected to the telephone network allows wireless telephone calls throughout the house.
Wireless audiovisual network: A radio transmitter placed in the living room near the main television sends the TV, satellite, cable or DVD signal to one or more other receivers located in the house near secondary screens. The infrared signal used to control the installation remotely can also be transmitted wirelessly.
Wireless electrical network: It is possible to renovate an electrical installation by adding radio or infrared wall controls. Likewise, most carrier current or control bus solutions can be controlled via remote controls or wireless button plates to be built into the walls.
We are currently seeing the emergence of a real standardized home network, capable of federating all the equipment in the house, namely ZigBee technology.
- c) WIRED SOLUTIONS
In addition to wireless and powerline solutions, centralized control can also use cabling infrastructure.
There are two main categories of open buses, technical buses and audiovisual buses:
Technical bus or field bus: Pair of conductors connected to the cabling infrastructure of the house, ensuring all the control, command, regulation and supervision functions of the technical installation (lighting, roller shutters, blinds, heating , air conditioning, security, etc.). The two types of standard control buses in this category are:
o KNX. This protocol has been adopted by more than 150 manufacturers and is gradually being implemented in residential housing.
o LonWorks. It is mainly used in office building or hospital projects, for example. Unlike equipment / Konnex, which are relatively centralized on the electrical panel, those of LonWorks are more easily distributed throughout the building (under ceiling or floor).
Audiovisual bus: Generally uses a computer cable with four twisted pairs to meet audiovisual needs above all. He can however participate in the technical management of the house. This type of bus is consistent with a voice, data and image network since the two infrastructures use the same type of cabling, which facilitates further developments.
220.127.116.11.3 CONCLUSION ON THE COMMUNICATION MEDIA
As we already explained in the introduction, the explosion in types of wireless communication media is blatant. To go further, we can specify that the two technologies that stand out are radio technology and Line Carrier Current. R&D projects are being developed to interoperate PLC, with radio or fiber optic technologies for very high speed broadcasts in buildings (1Gbit), whatever the type of infrastructure, new or under renovation.
18.104.22.168 PROBLEM OF INTEROPERABILITY
After having listed these technical sub-assemblies, we see that they are more and more numerous in our daily environment, the multiplication of these equipments and consequently, the multiplication of their manufacturers logically raises the question of interoperability!
The different manufacturers have not all chosen to make their products compatible with market standards and communicating through open protocols. Indeed, proprietary technologies are only registered in the very short and medium term or relate only to isolated applications. You must be aware of these limits to avoid technological dead ends such as maintenance-free equipment or technical support.
22.214.171.124.1 APPROACH TO THIS CONCEPT
Home automation is faced with the same problem that the world of computer networks experienced when it hatched: interoperability. In the absence of a standard, manufacturers have developed proprietary solutions, which leads us today to count more than a hundred different home automation technologies. Logical consequence, it is impossible to use two products of different brand, and each solution must be mono-manufacturer.
Human issues are identical to binary issues: if two people speak a different language, then you need an interpreter or an official language. So if two machines use a different protocol, you need a gateway or a common language…
This concept of interoperability is not necessarily obvious to understand, it can be defined as follows:
Ideally, we would like a remote control from manufacturer W to act on the roller shutters of manufacturer X, the heating system of manufacturer Y and the lighting of manufacturer Z.
126.96.36.199.2 A THREE-LEVEL PROBLEM
- a) MATERIAL INTEROPERABILITY
Here we are at the first level of the interoperability issue, namely that of connectivity, or even the total inability to physically connect wired, wireless and PLC networks.
But behind this problem, materially visible, does not imply, if we managed to physically connect these networks, that they could then exchange. In fact, beyond this first blocking point, the notion of “means of exchange” comes into play.
- b) INTEROPERABILITY OF “MEANS OF EXCHANGE”
Definition of a communication protocol
In computer and telecommunications networks, a communication protocol is a specification of rules, formats, to allow exchanges between different devices.
Communication protocol typology
The type of communication protocol used is the major challenge of current home automation. In fact, these protocols can be of two types, that is to say either open protocols (standard, non-proprietary), or closed protocols (proprietary, non-standard). We will therefore detail these two kinds of protocols, fundamentally different:
Proprietary protocol: The products are available from a single manufacturer, so it is the same contact for all operations but we remain “locked up” with this same manufacturer and its products if we wish to develop its global solution, therefore the possibilities are therefore also more reduced.
Standard or consortium protocol: This is most often a combination of several firms that use the same protocol. The possibilities are much greater since products from different suppliers are compatible, which guarantees a certain longevity of the installation. A certification ensures compatibility with the chosen protocol. However, very often, the cost of this certification is passed on to the sale prices.
Standardized protocol: An industrial standard is a reference published by a standardization body such as AFNOR, CEN, ISO etc. A standardized protocol is a protocol referenced by these organizations. Regulatory decrees may impose the application of certain standards (ex NFC 15-100). Standards evolve to take into account new technical constraints.
These three types of protocols are completely different business strategies, and there is currently no way to say which one will really win the market, or whether they will continue to coexist.
- c) APPLICATION LEVEL INTEROPERABILITY
The objective of this level of interoperability is to arrive at a level of language understandable by all, “almost natural”.
A number of initiatives have been launched with this in mind:
Service-oriented webservices and architectures
There is no doubt about it, a mode of access to the functionalities of objects which should explode in the near future. A true universal method of sharing resources, the advantage of WebServices is that it presents a set of questions and answers that is uniform for all programming languages. The “services” orientation allows the easy integration of new external functionalities in an application, in order to obtain a scalable system.
The OSGi Alliance (for Open Services Gateway initiative)
It is a global, not-for-profit consortium of technology innovators, founded in March 1999. It promotes a proven process, ensuring the interoperability of applications and services, based on its platform integration of components.
These specifications should encourage the deployment of Java services which are downloaded dynamically to the gateways concerned and which are accessible by all the devices on the internal network connected to this gateway.
The members of the alliance represent many markets, such as the smart home, automotive electronics, mobile phones and business sectors. The industrial members include: service providers, content providers, infrastructure providers and network operators, public services, software developers, gateway providers, suppliers of electronic components and products (wired and wireless thread) and research institutions.
Upnp (for Universal Plug and Play)
The Upnp standard is mainly used for sharing and discovering digital media, videos, sound, etc. However, part of the Upnp specification is for everyday devices. Already, simple devices like switches or lamps have standardized descriptions of the actions they provide. Thus, an Upnp checkpoint is able to manage any device implementing the specification.
That said, most devices are not UPnP compatible, probably because things are only standardized for a limited number of device types. However, there is a way in the specifications to describe in a standardized way what the device is, the functions it performs and the actions that can be performed.
The DPWS technology (Devices Profile For Web Services) which will be the logical successor of the Upnp technology adds a part of Web services on the latter.
DLNA (for Digital Living Network Alliance)
It is an alliance of companies that produce electronic devices, mobile devices and personal computers. This consortium is supported by the biggest players in the world of Consumer Electronics: Motorola, Philips, Samsung, Matsushita, Hewlett-Packard, Sony, Microsoft, Intel and Nokia. Its purpose is to define a standard that will allow the products of these different companies to be interoperable and to create a network of electronic devices within the home.
We also observe the emergence of a certain number of computer tools which, under the era of Web 2.0, favor the development of this interoperability of applications and services:
GWT (for Google Web Toolkit) is a framework developed by Google, allowing to create dynamic web pages using AJAX technology. When creating the application, the developer will completely ignore Web development aspects, and simply build his application in Java, using the various design tools contained in the GWT Framework.
The software development formats of these applications condition those that will be used in the services being designed. For example, if you use a GWT calendar to schedule the synchronization of actors in an organization for a meeting, the retrieval of room occupancy data will be conditioned by the GWT data format. This is about service convergence, a concept used to designate the convergence of software for service.
188.8.131.52.3 A SOLUTION: THE DEPLOYMENT OF GATEWAYS
In order to make all of these products compatible with a standardized protocol, one of the solutions is to develop gateways (hardware or software) making it possible to link the different solutions. Two cases can be envisaged depending on the technologies available. The manufacturer provides the technological building blocks to interoperate with the gateway or provides connectivity via the communication network with an open protocol.
Figure 15– Two systems, having different communication protocols, will be able to communicate via a gateway
Figure 16– Two systems, having different communication protocols, will be able to communicate via a gateway via the communication network
The two interoperability solutions can coexist. The trend is towards the second solution because it converges towards all IP.
2.2.5 PROBLEM OF THE INSTALLATION
Most of the technologies on the market are centered on wired infrastructures (of the Konnex type), which requires major renovations but remains very suitable for new construction. The investment is very expensive, even if we are promised to be more economical in use in the long term. The work required by these installations therefore systematically involves the intervention of an installer or an integrator. If we now look at the sales side, at present, a person wishing to integrate home automation features at home must speak directly to an installer. She will be able to find information on the internet where information is scattered and above all very “commercially oriented”. DIY stores offer almost nothing! The ordinary user is therefore inevitably referred to an electrical installer.
This installer may be only specialized in its electrical installations and is often not aware of home automation, he will even be rather reluctant to sell and install products, because he knows full well that he will lose time, not knowing how to program them. In this respect, we can highlight a major problem which until now has hindered its development, namely that there is a divide between those who design and produce the products and those who install them.
The other possibility is to speak directly to a home automation integrator who will know immediately what to offer to his customers since he offers so to speak only that. The HAGER brand in this area is the undisputed leader: in fact, they rely on a network of certified electricians who swear by Konnex solutions. The already exorbitant prices of Konnex solutions added to the installation service of an installer or an integrator leads to a global installation whose cost price very often approaches 12 or 13,000 € (such an investment will have classic functionalities in each field. On this point, we can also consider that on an established average, the transition from a standard electrical installation to a “domotized” installation doubles the initial cost of the electrical batch. another blocking point would arise, the lack of installer and especially the lack of “configurator.” The skills necessary for the configuration of the products are closely related to data processing, skills which very often do not have electricians.
The current home automation is not within the reach of what we used to call the “Sunday handyman”, that is to say the consumer who buys his “home automation package” in a large DIY area and who installs it yourself in your interior.
2.3.1 COMMON TECHNOLOGIES
Below, a diagram of the main home automation technologies classified according to the two main criteria developed above, namely the type of communication medium and the level of openness of the technology (owner / standard):
Figure 17 – Panorama of home automation technologies, owners on the one hand and standards on the other hand
|Communication Support||Standard and / or standardized technologies||Proprietary technologies|
(Power line carrier)
|KNX – CPL X10||X2D –CPL (Delta Dore) In One – CPL (Legrand)|
|KNX – RF
ZigBee / ZigBee Pro Z-Wave
|In One – RF (Legrand) X2D – RF (Delta Dore)
IO – HomeControl
Alvaïs RF (Schendier Electric)
Table 3 – Characterization of wireless technologies
The technologies are described in the next section.
2.3.2 DESCRIPTION OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES
The different communication protocols identified above, whether standard or proprietary, are detailed in the following:
This is SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC’s proprietary radio technology.
This is LEGRAND’s proprietary technology (also exists under the name of IOBL = In One By Legrand).
Proprietary radio communication technology, this is an initiative by industrialists recognized in the field of habitat management including HONEYWELL, specialist in control automations for individuals and businesses, HÖRMANN, European leader in doors and operators for housing and industry, SOMFY, international specialist in the motorization and automation of building openings and VELUX, world leader in the roof window market, ASSA ABLOY, the world leader in door opening solutions and recently, NIKO, a recognized Belgian manufacturer of innovative quality solutions focused on interior comfort. The objective of these manufacturers is to pool their expertise around this common protocol, the IO-Homecontrol.
Konnex technology is one of the leaders in today’s home automation market and has no serious competitor at its level. However, this technology is mainly focused on the BUS communication medium, the Konnex-RF technology exists but very few products are offered. This technology being carried by actors in the world of “electricity”, they swear by the cable which by its reliability and its flow allows obtaining high quality installations. So finally, if we take stock of it, it is a reliable, proven technology with advanced capabilities, but complex and expensive.
Standard developed by Echelon, a leader in the automation market. This technology is developing on a large scale in the building automation world and tends to reach large size home automation installations.
It is a standard technology that has existed for many years, it can even be said that it has contributed to the development of home automation with the general public.
It is the proprietary radio and PLC technology of the company DELTA DORE, it is a technology and reliable products which have the advantage of communicating with many thermal products on the market (Acova, Thermor,…) .
Wireless communication technology whose main characteristic is to consume very little energy37. Many manufacturers are now developing ZigBee compatible home automation products. It is a serious candidate in the race to equip small electronic devices (household appliances, hi-fi, toys, …) and home automation (motors, bulbs, detectors, thermostats, touch screens, …).
Proprietary communication technology supported by many industrialists that was created in the United States, many products exist on the American market, however, the technology is slowly entering the European market. It is ZigBee’s direct competitor in the market.
2.3.3 CONCLUSION ON THESE TECHNOLOGIES
Very clearly, we see that RF technologies occupy a prominent place in this panorama of home automation technologies.
Konnex technology, both bus, PLC and radio, is growing day by day in the world of home automation (More than 21,000 installers / integrators worldwide, more than 10,000 certified products and 15,000 products installed, more than 200 manufacturers, 41 R&D centers, etc.). This technology is therefore strongly supported by the world of installers and is not yet really accessible to the individual (from an installation and configuration point of view). The second technology which remains in this same logic of bus technology is LonWorks which comes rather from the industrial and tertiary world. The main issue around this technology is that it can be deployed at the residential level. The current evidence does not allow us to determine at this time whether this technology will penetrate the residential market or not. We can also note that many manufacturers with proprietary technologies have gateways that operate towards Konnex technology.
X10 technology, historic home automation technology, suffered from a few handicapping technical points for large-scale deployment (particularly concerning feedback on orders sent). However, it remains widely tested, which is why we have recently observed a resumption of this low-cost technology by companies like “Home Technology” which is reusing it by improving it on these weak points.
Proprietary technologies (type X2D, In One, Alvaïs) are technologies that guarantee high reliability of operation between all materials, on the other hand, the product offer is limited to the products available from the manufacturer, no assembly with another technology. ‘another manufacturer is not possible. The initiative of the IO-Homecontrol consortium makes it possible to circumvent this problem because the different manufacturers of the consortium use the same communication protocol, the product offer is therefore much greater; the products are complementary and there are no competing products in this consortium. So in any case the extension of the installation is linked to the initial choice, without being able to compete. The recent provision of an IP gateway in the product offering is the solution proposed by certain manufacturers to open their range to the outside while retaining their technological specificity.
Regarding low-consumption wireless communication technologies, we find the ZigBee and the Z-Wave. The Z-Wave, very developed in the US, is not developed in Europe but remains a very serious competitor to ZigBee for which the product offer is slow to develop due to lack of finalization of standardization.
Figure 18 Cost / complexity relationship of network types
X10 remains a technology for small installations, while Lon technologies will be used in large buildings. KNX technologies can be reconfigured remotely and require specific skills from installers. The other manufacturers have simple installation solutions but difficult to reconfigure from a distance. Their product offering is evolving to take this constraint into account.
In conclusion, the table below brings together the characteristics of the products based on the protocols used.
|The advantages||The disadvantages|
| Products available from a single manufacturer
A single contact R&D often more reactive because a
only manufacturer requested
|Obligation to purchase all products from a single manufacturer or consortium
Sustainability dependent on a single entity
|Open protocol||More products available (one catalog per manufacturer)
Allows you to have more precisely the desired function
|Cost of certification passed on to the sale price of products|
In a service logic, the ideal is to have several product solutions for the same service. Open protocols favor this approach.
In this section are described the available or future technologies, without description of their interest for home care.
2.4.1 IDENTIFICATION OF IDENTIFIED NEEDS
When identifying a set of technologies aimed at promoting the autonomy of the elderly person at home, it is essential to categorize functional or service needs. This involves retaining the needs using ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) to be returned to the elderly person and those involved in Home Support, that is to say those enabling the person to loss of autonomy to continue living in their accommodation in acceptable conditions of safety and comfort by keeping control over their environment, while facilitating the interventions of professionals accompanying them on a daily basis. The person registers in his neighborhood in relation to his loved ones: family, friends or neighbors in the context of local shops and structures. These needs can be classified into four categories of needs: “Security”, “Communication”,”Health”, “Comfort”.
Figure 19 – Functional or service needs for Home Support
The representation and classification of needs can also be interpreted according to the actors entering the “Home care” eco-systems. The definition of services is linked to the activity favored within the home by reconsidering the technical solutions necessary to constitute the situations favorable to these activities. These activities are those of the person living at home, but also those of professionals, both at home and outside the home. The technical means made available constitute the working tools of these personnel transforming their existing practices. Usage studies show that the introduction of ICT in professional or private practices does not systematically materialize in actual use of these ICTs by users. Reluctance to change, ergonomic problems, a futile perception of these technologies, but also a lack of skills and training can then be an obstacle to the dissemination of intended uses. An ICT introduction strategy must be defined at the same time as the technical design of the service.
Either we retain the products available on a given date, or we carry out a redefinition of these products from the product specifications. An intermediate case between choice of available products and design of new products is most often to be considered. The “recontextualization” of existing products for new uses linked to new services requires a readjustment of these products, for example for the creation of gateways as we have seen previously, if these do not exist.
For each identified function, a solution of products can be proposed constituting an offer in the form of a pack. But a given product can also be multi-functional.
Figure 20 – Eco system for home support & care
For example, a window sensor can tell us that a window is open, information that can be interpreted depending on the context such as:
to be taken into account to reduce heating in order to save energy, which may be a sign of an intrusion, a lack of vigilance on the part of the resident if the window remains open when it should normally be closed (for example winter) etc.
These different functionalities can be taken into account differently in connection with the loss of autonomy of the resident person, and associated services can then be offered in particular by accompanying a third person, locally and / or remotely.
Remote interactions change the representations of users in relation to their intervention and the very nature of the activity in progress. A different “distance” take is then in play depending on whether the action is done locally by a remote control or remotely by an interface via the network, with the possibility of visual or only sound contact. The closure of a remote opening will not be accepted in the same way by the resident person depending on the context of execution of this action. A dehumanization of activities risks being felt if this mode of interaction were systematized to the detriment of a direct relationship between actors in the situation.
Figure 21- Interactions between caregivers /helped
Activities in a context mediated by ICT constitute a change by transforming the instrumental representations both from the point of view of the use of technical artefacts and of the modes of mobilization of these artefacts in action. These technologies are not neutral and have cognitive repercussions on the actors of the working situation, both helping and helping.
2.4.2 OVERVIEW OF HOME SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES
184.108.40.206 HOME AUTOMATION SERVING HOME CARE
As in the case of people with disabilities, it is hypothesized that home automation can help, or in all cases, promote the maintenance at home of aging people. The psychological context of these two types of use is very different, as the elderly are currently more resistant to their use. One approach is to say that home automation can make living space adaptable, capable of adapting to the gradual entry into dependency of the elderly.
In a KNX home automation architecture, there is no systematic use of a central unit. Each device has its own intelligence, capable of intercepting events from effectors and performing associated actions. KNX is therefore very flexible and constantly adaptable to new needs. The structure below represents a typical typology: a wired bus can be installed in the case of a major rehabilitation of the housing and / or radio or current carrier solutions is implemented in the event of renovation without heavy intervention. The modules controlling the actuators are installed in a panel or in the form of a radio module or carrier current.
Figure 22: Principle of implementation of the KNX bus.
Reconfigurations are possible depending on the evolution of the loss of autonomy. The following example shows the possibilities of reconfigurable technologies. For ease of learning and locating functions, the shutter control buttons are close to these allowing the user to associate the button with the closing opening of the shutter and allow its individual control. A scenario button will chain a series of commands corresponding to a sequence of sequences allowing, for example, to close all the shutters in the evening after dark. A remote control can also be used for this purpose, and / or carried out via an internet gateway in collaboration with the person at home, an assistant accompanying him at the end of the day to put the accommodation in comfort and comfort. security. This description shows the “potential of the situation” linked to upgradable equipment, thus creating favorable atmospheres for home care.
The following figure synthesizes this concept of evolutionary housing, both from the point of view of the reconfiguration of the functionalities of housing effectors, and in the functional representations that the user can have of these effectors to restore their autonomy. The hypothesis of success of this type of scenario is linked to a progressive appropriation of the uses of technologies requiring a phase of anticipation before the real loss of autonomy, as much for the person and his entourage as for the professional staff accompanying him.
Figure 23: Example of scalability of a home automation environment
A combination of effectors and actuators available in the accommodation makes it possible to imagine different scenarios: lighting control according to the occupancy of the rooms by locally increasing the light level to promote visual comfort with acceptable economic conditions; encourage night movement by lighting specific routes (moving a toilet bed for example); maintain thermal comfort depending on the occupancy of the rooms, control access to the building and housing, etc.
These technologies are jointly necessary for the energy optimization of housing and to be linked to associated services.
A shared schedule will allow professionals to organize themselves to avoid overlapping and inform of delays or unforeseen in the appointments made, and thus for each to take the necessary decisions, the person at home regaining autonomy to organize in his daily life.
The schedule can be coupled with home automation to optimize energy savings, but also can be coupled with access control to predict arrivals in the accommodation.
These different scenarios show the need to interconnect the different home networks and the value of convergence both in terms of networks and services to facilitate home care.
Specific gateways can allow these interconnections and develop services in a multi-supplier ecosystem / product manufacturers. The issue of an interoperable gateway means that several suppliers can be present in the same territory and offer products and services that are both competitive and complementary, facilitating large-scale deployment.
The necessary collaboration between suppliers and gateway designer to provide the minimum interconnection bricks, beyond the equipment to be installed in the accommodation and its accesses, a deployment of communication infrastructure must be deployed to allow interpersonal collaborations on a same territory, regardless of the technological solutions selected, a unified environment allows a universal service.
In the case of large-scale deployment, these infrastructures are necessary to automatically download the configurations. Residential gateways automatically detect the equipment installed in the accommodation and its accesses, they transmit requests for software bricks to a server to interconnect home networks.
The centralization of information through a gateway makes it possible to envisage activity analysis within the home. Some solutions go in this direction to improve the security of residents by generating alerts or alarms on events. These proposed solutions can replace or complement the so-called remote alarm solution.
The deployment of this type of infrastructure is not without consequences for the organization of the work of home care professionals, redefining the role of each. They impact the services associated with safety, health and communication.
220.127.116.11 EXTENDED HOME AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES
With traditional sensors in the field of home automation, sensors specific to home care fall within the scope of the security functions: physiological sensors worn by the person according to their state of health, fall detectors, remote alarm. These fall detectors do not meet the expected needs because they have a posterior effect rather than a predictive effect. Current research is in the design of devices to prevent falling by analyzing the activity of the person, both in his home and outside his home.
Remote alarm devices are devices for calling a third party to assist them. But usage analyzes show that the elderly do not have to wear these devices tomorrow because they do not want to be stigmatized, or that it is not always easy to keep them nearby, especially when taking showers. In addition, only 5% of remote alarm calls correspond to real alarms linked to emergency assistance. Isolated people feel the need to be able to maintain a social bond by calling the remote assistance services.
Controlling access to buildings and dwellings is a condition for having a feeling of security. This is both a problem for professionals to enter the accommodation, as well as for the person wanting to recognize its visitors. The interconnection of video door entry devices and door locks remains a problem in its own right.
New services are being put in place taking the form of network coaching requiring the interconnection of multimedia networks with communication networks, in particular through the television screen. These solutions appear rather as isolated solutions, disconnected from each other without concerns of convergence with the solutions of home care professionals. These solutions also include connections with relatives. The technological obstacles still to be overcome are in the interconnection of multimedia products.
Neighborhood services wish to develop information services linked to the activities in the neighborhood of the place of residence, the solutions developed go through the web and raise the question of the type of screen to be interconnected to access this information: television, computer, touch screen etc.
18.104.22.168 COMPLEMENTARY TECHNOLOGIES
In the main functions to provide security, health, communication or comfort services it is necessary to provide technical functions to protect users from malicious intrusion both from the point of view of the protection of privacy and from the view of physical intrusion of housing due to the interconnection of housing on the Internet. Network security functions are essential to protect installations.
The protection of privacy concerns people living at home but also professionals working at home, constituting a physical “social network” interconnected like social networks like “face book”.
3.1.1 HOME AUTOMATION MANUFACTURERS
These are most often large manufacturers of electrical equipment (except Delta Dore and Somfy, which have developed their activity on this type of product), but which are clearly positioned today in the home automation sector. These manufacturers have an international influence.
22.214.171.124 MAIN MANUFACTURERS OF THE HOME AUTOMATION PRESENT ON THE FRENCH MARKET
1) Delta Dore
For over 38 years, the company has been designing, manufacturing and marketing a complete range of home automation and technical building management products based on the complementarity of its three businesses: energy management, security systems and automation.
Turnover of 92 Million Euros for the financial year 2016.
Delta Dore currently employs nearly 700 people, including 400 in Bonnemain. 80 people work in its design office to design innovative products combining performance and user comfort.
Created in 1955, the Hager Group has established itself among the leaders in the construction of electrical installation equipment with products intended for the home as well as professional and tertiary premises, around its main brands Hager, Tehalit, Flash and Logisty.
Turnover of more than 1.3 Billion Euros for the financial year 2017.
The group currently employs nearly 11,000 people and has 30 production sites located in 12 different countries. The group benefits from a strong presence at local and regional level through 7000 points of sale in more than 55 countries.
Legrand is the world specialist in products and systems for electrical installations and information networks in residential, tertiary and industrial buildings
Sales of nearly 4.129 billion euros in 2017, 25% of which in France.
With more than 20 global (Legrand, Bticino, Ortronics) or regional (Pial, Wiremold, Luminex, Anam, etc.) brands, Legrand has subsidiaries in more than 60 countries. This provides the group with a very wide geographic coverage which allows it to adapt to local requirements and to work on international projects. This represents around 31,000 employees, of which almost 9,000 are for France…
4) Schneider Electric
To date Schneider Electric is:
– Number 1 worldwide in electrical distribution.
– Number 2 worldwide in automation and control.
Turnover of 17.3 Billion Euros including 45% in Europe.
The group employs 88,670 people, includes 25 R&D sites, 206 industrial sites, 60 logistics centers and no less than 15,000 points of sale.
French manufacturer for 35 years of solutions animating the openings to make the house alive. These motors and automations have been designed to allow you to take full advantage of the roller shutters, exterior and interior blinds, garage door and gate, according to your needs and desires.
Sales of 720.2 million euros in 2017, 28% of which in France.
Somfy is established in 51 countries through 52 subsidiaries, 19 offices and 23 agencies spread over 5 continents.
126.96.36.199 PMI OF HOME AUTOMATION
The aim here is to identify a certain number of companies linked to the home automation sector but which do not constitute major groups. Among these, we can note:
– Vity Technology in the east
We can also notice some companies that develop their company’s strategy on a particular technology, such as
– Cléode, with ZigBee and ZigBee Pro
– LEA, HF company group, high speed carrier current solution (Homeplug), develops IpTV solutions on PLC, and video intercom on Ip
Other companies like
– Yokis, technology based on microcontrollers,
– Watteco, technology based on electromagnetic pulses
Develop their own innovative technology and try to enter the market with it.
3.1.2 REAL ESTATE MANUFACTURERS
Apart from the home automation sector, we can also pay attention to the field of building automation where we will find the same problems but with a larger scale. In this area, we can cite companies:
– TREND solution for technical building management
– WireCom Technologies (CPL and LON) carrier current solution for the tertiary sector
3.1.3 HOME / IMMOVABLE SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS
– DHC (microsoft + Hager) ondeworld of info + bat (elec) ExExDomus product
3.1.4 OTHER MANUFACTURERS
188.8.131.52 MANUFACTURERS OF VDI WIRING SYSTEMS
We can also list a certain number of manufacturers specializing in VDI systems, such as companies:
– 3M, with its “VDI small tertiary and residential cabling” range
– Alombard (Schneider Electric Group), with its “Alvidis” range
– Arnould, with its “Residential Communication” range
– CAE-Groupe, with its “Axcity” range
– Casanov @, specialized in this field
– Hager, with its “Nodéis” range
– InfraPlus (Schneider Electric Group), specialized in this field
– Legrand, with its “Optimum” range
– Sofim (Axon Group), with its “AxHome” range
184.108.40.206 EMPLOYEE TECHNOLOGIES (M2M)
Other players are involved in the logic of embedded technologies, a booming market which has a very bright future ahead of it. Indeed, this market which we often call M2M (for Machine 2 Machine) aims to make all the technical subsets of the habitat that we have described communicating.
– WaveCom GSM solution manufacturer
– WebDyn (hardware AND software)
The M2M has its living room see site http://www.ipconvergence.fr/
3.1.5 MANUFACTURERS AT EUROPEAN AND GLOBAL LEVELS
After having flown over this panorama of French players in Home and Building Automation, it seems important to quote a certain number of players in this sector at European and International level, among these: ABB (Switzerland), Berker ( Germany), BTicino (Italy), Crestron (USA), Honeywell (USA), Lutron (USA), Merten (Germany), Nice (Italy), Secant (Canada), Siemens (Germany), Teleco (Italy), Theben HTS (Swiss).
We can notice the predominance of manufacturers in Germany, this is explained in particular by the strong enthusiasm of the Germans for this type of equipment.
Telecom operators are providers of telecommunications infrastructure and deploy new architectures for service communication networks and platforms; Large groups such as Alcatel Lucent, Sagem, Groupe TC are their manufacturers
Companies such as Thomson, Sagem and Orange came together to form Soft At Home with the aim of proposing a standard to unify the “boxes” specific to each service operator (“live box, free box, alice box and other x boxes).
3.3.1 HOME AUTOMATION / BUILDING AUTOMATION
With regard to the “service actors” of the Home Automation sector, we can cite companies such as:
– The company Trilogie belonging to Delta Dore specialized in technical building management (GTB). Website: http://www.trilogie-net.com/ and the company Energie Système for the operation of the site http://www.energie-systeme.fr/.
Large groups have so-called “facilities management” services, which help with the operation of buildings, for example Dalkia, an energy subsidiary of Veolia, Elyo of the GDF-SUEZ group, which has a residential park management branch, etc.
3.3.2 SECURITY SERVICES
In terms of security services, we can cite a number of remote monitoring service providers such as:
– Activeille (from the Cofintex 6 group) – http://www.activeille.fr
– ADT Security (Tyco International Group): http://www.adt-securite.fr
– Atral (Member of the HAGER group) – http://www.atral.fr
– Chubb Sécurité – http://www.chubbsecurite.com
– EPS Remote monitoring – http://www.eps-telesurveillance.fr
– Fichet-Bauche – http://www.fichet-bauche.com
– G4S (Group 4 Securitor) – http://www.g4s.com
– Scutum Group – http://www.scutum.fr
– GTS Téléassistance (General Technics & Services) – http://www.gtsalarm.com
– Gunnebo – http://www.gunnebo.fr
– IMA (Inter Mutuelles Assistance) – http://www.ima.eu
– Initial Delta Security – http://www.initial-delta.fr
– Protection 24 – http://www.protection24.com
– Protection One – http://www.protectionone.com
– Securitas – http://www.securitas.com
– Siemens Remote monitoring – http://www.siemens.fr/tlsonline
– Vigitel services – /
The number of these providers has exploded in recent years, in particular on the basis of these figures which most highlight:
– 320,000 burglaries reported in France in 2017: 1 every 2 minutes on average.
– Almost 40% of break-in attempts are recorded between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
3.3.3 ENERGY SERVICES
Another sector of activity in full swing at present, it is that of the energy services.
Today in France, it is possible to choose your energy supplier, just as it was possible some time ago to separate from France Telecom for the benefit of another operator for its telephone subscription. Since the market opened, EDF is no longer the only supplier. Among the best known we can cite:
– Alterna – http://www.alterna-energie.fr
– Direct Énergie – http://www.direct-energie.com
– Enercoop – http://www.enercoop.fr
– GEG (Gaz Electricité de Grenoble) – http://www.geg.fr
– Planet UI – http://www.planete-ui.com
– Poweo – http://www.poweo.com
Increasingly, we are seeing that the new energy services are being implemented by the energy suppliers themselves. We can take the example of the company DomTis based in BRON which designed the Dombox (TNT Box integrating six services: tuner TNT, eMail, Internet, eco-citizen advice, monitoring of consumption and eBoutique.) Of which one of the partners is. .. Edelia (EDF Group).
At the level of innovation projects, a major theme is currently devoted to everything related to Energy; we can take the example of the HOMES project by Schneider Electric, which was selected by the Industrial Innovation Agency (AII) and whose aim is to save 20% of energy in buildings.
3.3.4 HOME HELP SERVICES
With the service job check, home help services or personal services have been developed, specifically services for the elderly, assistance for the disabled and loss of autonomy. These personal services include computer assistance and DIY services.
Virtual private networks allow safe teleworking services (office services available at home, telephony, office printer connected to the home).
3.4.1 SPECIALIZED INSTALLERS
These are traditional players in the building industry, these installers are most often electrical craftsmen whose core business is electrical installation. In order to diversify their service offer, these installers undergo home automation installation training. Very often, they choose to mainly install a brand (Legrand, Delta Dore or Hager more often).
Problems = difficulties related to IT, training problem, very often too short compared to the level required in this area, programming and network skills, …)
This site is in fact a real directory which lists the electricians members of the Club Hager and the Home automation specialists Tébis (based on the KNX standard). It allows you to find a professional by name, by city or by department or even to refine the search by skills (advanced search).
The Konnex Europe site lists the Konnex certified partners. In early 2019, Promotelec will advise a list of competent home automation installer.
3.4.2 HOME AUTOMATION
It is in this category of spontaneous installers, often called integrators: they are professionals with both IT and Home Automation skills (in addition to technical background in “normal electrical installation”).
In this specialized professional sector, we can take the example of the company Marsollier Domotique, located in Rennes. Company website: http://www.marsollier.fr
3.4.3 INSTALLATION INDUSTRIALS
In this category, we will find much larger companies that carry out major projects, logically, we find ourselves in the real estate sector via companies such as:
– Cegelec – http://www.cegelec.fr
– Beterem – http://www.beterem-ingenierie.fr, TPF group
– Spie – http://www.spie.com
Or subsidiaries of groups such as Bouygues construction, Vinci, Eiffage,
– ETDE, http://www.etde.fr, Bouygues construction group
– Axians and Opteor, Vinci group, http://www.vinci.com
– Forclum – http://www.forclum.com, Eiffage group
The home support system allows dependent elderly people to stay at home thanks to the interventions of a certain number of professional actors who carry out support and accompaniment activities in their home, more or less frequently depending their level of dependence.
In a simplified way, we can summarize the operating system of Home Support as follows:
Figure 24 – Organization of professional actors for home support
3.5.1 AID FOR DAILY LIFE
This sector employs around 1.3 million people in France and it is a very heterogeneous sector. Indeed, it extends from IT maintenance to nursing care activities. Among the trades that we will find in these services for dependent elderly people, there are in particular:
Home agents Home helpers
Auxiliaries of social life, the latter hold a specific diploma: the State Diploma of Auxiliary of Social Life.
In France, there are nearly 7000 home help structures providing services to 1.4 million dependent elderly people and people with disabilities, these can take various forms:
Public structures that depend on town halls (CCAS, Communal Centers for Social Action)
Associations grouped or not in federations. In France there are three major associative federations:
o The National Union of Home Help, Care and Services: association founded in 1970, it has more than 122,000 professionals who help more than 555,000 people.
o Home Help in Rural Areas: national network of 3,200 associations grouped into 92 departmental federations created in 1945. It has 100,000 volunteers and 80,000 employees who provide home services to around 500,000 people (disabled, elderly or sick)
o National federation of associations for home help and services: Federation created in 2002, 270 associations present in 89 departments, employing 37,000 people and working with 166,000 people
Private companies experiencing significant development. This development is supported by the creation of networks of franchise networks across the country which are associated with personal service brands. These brands are most often developed by companies in the insurance sector (MMA, MAIF, etc.) and in banking (Banque Postale, Crédit Mutuelle, Crédit Agricole, etc.).
3.5.2 THE HEALTHCARE AREA
An elderly person at home requires health support and regular medical follow-up. Among the professions that we will find in these activities directly related to the health field, we find in particular:
Nursing assistants, who must be employed by a home nursing service (Home Nursing Services, mainly managed by associations, foundations and congregations but also by municipalities (CCAS), home assistance associations or mutual)
Nurses, who can practice under two statutes: self-employed or by being employed by a Home Nursing Care Service
General practitioners, practicing as a liberal in most cases Physiotherapist masseurs, also practicing as a liberal in most cases
The sale or loan of medical equipment associated with a care service
3.5.3 THE FIELD OF INFORMATION AND COORDINATION
Public or associative actors have specialized in the field of information for the gerontological sector and in the coordination of actors in the home care system. A number of players have been identified as playing a fundamental role in this sector:
The social advisers in gerontology, these positions depend on the Departmental Center for Social Action which itself depends on the General Council
The Local Information and Coordination Center, this structure is a reception desk for the elderly, families and professionals
3.5.4 THE FIELD OF SECURITY
“Personal tele-assistance is a daily service, allowing isolated, elderly or disabled people to be able to get in touch from their home with professional contacts 24/7. Beyond emergency cases (falls, discomfort), teleassistance is a presence, psycho-emotional support for people sometimes in isolation who find through this service the strength of a social bond. ”
Thousands of calls are made and received every day; hundreds of people are rescued every month. The remote assistance market in France is in a growth phase, nearly 250,000 people are connected to a remote assistance system, many remote assistance service companies, whether national, regional or local, have grown to meet needs security for the elderly.
220.127.116.11 SERVICE PROVIDERS OF TELEASSISTANCE
Some names without being exhaustive.
- a) PRIVATE SECTOR
Custos (SCUTUM group) in the Rennes area which works in collaboration with the General Council of Ille-et-Vilaine. Scutum call center is in Toulouse
Filassistance International, CNP Assurance
FIL BLEU (Axa assistance France)
GTS Maday Security Remote Assistance
Find out that (EDELIA) Vitaris Response (Tunstall)
- b) ASSOCIATIVE SECTOR
EQUINOXE, created by the association of home help Reception and service
FILIEN, service offered by the ADMR association
Présence Verte, the first remote assistance service in France for isolated people weakened by age, disability or illness (solutions for individual houses and collective housing)
Séréna, within the framework of MAIF insurance contracts
18.104.22.168 THE MANUFACTURERS OF TELEALARMS
APHYCARE Technologies BIOTEL
BOSH SECURITY SYSTEMS DOMPLUS
EDELIA (Quiet assistance) LAUDREN Electronics INTERVOX Systems (Quiatil +)
IST (International Security Technology), Finnish company (Vivago) LUSORA
PERVAYA (SalveO) (STRATEL) (SCANTRONIC) TUNSTALL
3.5.5 THE LEISURE AREA
To summarize, this is about providing service in terms of maintaining social ties and in terms of entertainment, sporting activity. These are structures organizing leisure activities in the form of a club, for example, or home visits.
The unverified assumption that ICT will favor the deployment of home care services underpins projects under development. There are no projects in France in operational phase on a significant scale. All current projects are experimental projects, either to develop new technologies or to test the operational feasibility of a large-scale deployment of ICT for HOME SUPPORT.
4.1.1 A COMMON POLITICAL WILL
The development of innovative information and communication technology products for dependent people is at the heart of many projects developed since 2004 in France and in Europe. This research and development dynamic follows on from a European political will driven in 1998 by Recommendation No. R (98) 956 of the Council of Europe (committee of ministers) according to which:
“All persons dependent or likely to become dependent, whatever their age, race, belief and the nature, origin and severity of their condition, must be entitled to the assistance and help required for to be able to lead a life in accordance with their real and potential capacities, at the highest possible level, and therefore must have access to quality services and the most suitable technologies ”.
Since then, national and European research programs have prompted the launch of projects in this area.
22.214.171.124 AT EUROPEAN LEVEL
This is the case today of the 7th Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (abbreviated FP7). This is the current framework program (2017-2013) of the European Union for research and technological development.
We can also note this joint initiative of the member states on aging and technologies to help maintain autonomy: AAL (for Ambient Assisted Living). Article 169 of the European Treaty authorizes the participation of the European Union, as a partner of equal rank, in research and development programs carried out jointly by several Member States.
126.96.36.199 AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL
We have been witnessing for some years a real awareness of the urgency of the problem of aging. This is reflected in numerous actions and multiple reports which provide a critical analysis of the current and future situation. Among these can be cited:
The creation of the National Solidarity Fund for Autonomy. This agency set up following the law of February 11, 2005 on disability, aims to ensure in France the development of social protection for people with disabilities or loss of autonomy. One of its objectives is in particular
“Anticipating emerging issues” which includes the theme of
“The application of new technologies in the service of autonomy”.
The report by Vincent RIALLE on “New technologies likely to improve gerontological practices and the daily life of elderly patients and their families” given in May 2017 to Mr. Philippe BAS, Minister of Health and Solidarity.
The report of the Federation of Electrical, Electronic and Communication Industries entitled “An industrial strategy for the markets of the future”, drawn up under the chairmanship of Pierre GATAZ and submitted to the Secretary of State for Enterprise and Foreign Trade in June 2018 In this report, it is noted that “telehealth and telemedicine can improve patient care as well as the efficiency of health investments. They contribute to developing a range of care for more people, in better conditions of comfort for them (home support), and for less
The report of the General Information Technology Council, “ICT and Health: What public policy? “. Report presented by Robert PICARD, General Engineer and with the participation of Bruno SALGUES, Teacher-researcher (GET) at the Ministry of Industry in August 2017.
(VisAge presentation extract):
Support for home support is an increasingly important national concern
May 2016 – Report “The family, space of solidarity between generations” (Cordier, CNSA)
May 2016 – Report “Intergenerational society serving the family
“(Briel, FRR)” More than two million people regularly help, on a non-professional basis, a loved one, a dependent or disabled person, in the activities of their daily life. ”
June 2016 – Old Age Solidarity Plan (Low, Delegate for the Elderly) “Our challenge is to find how to strengthen this strong link in solidarity that are people over 60, who today are in charge of older and younger. ”
July 2016 – 2016 Family Conference (de Villepin, Prime Minister) “encourage innovative projects [intended to recreate or consolidate solidarity between generations and help family carers] and encourage prefects and communities to favor this type of innovations in the project authorization process. ”
August 2017 – Report “Use of ICTs by citizens in fragile situations in their living spaces” (Picard, MINEFE) “Gerontological techniques respond to the threat of placing people in institutions”
November 2017 – Report for the Head of State “For the sick and their loved ones…” (Ménard) Responding to the needs of the elderly in terms of social integration and quality of life through the development of home automation and ICT for people with cognitive impairment, with the support of public authorities.
February 2018 – “Alzheimer’s and related diseases” plan (Sarkozy, President) Improving home support using new technologies via AAP ANR / CNSA “Home automation and ICT to compensate for autonomy” 2019, € 4 million.
March 2018 – AAP ANR / CNSA TecSan / EmergenceTec: Technologies for health and autonomy. Priority axis: interface technologies for autonomy and on-board or stationary communication systems
4.1.2 BASICALLY DIFFERENT APPROACHES
Analysis of the projects shows that the research & development results are in three directions: results of the product type, of the infrastructure type or of the service type. The term service is understood here by the fact that the service is performed face-to-face and / or remotely by a direct service from a service provider close to a client in an obligation of means to obtain a result. Within this definition, services without a human actor are not called services but functions. Human actors capable of ensuring the desired functional quality for the product (in particular through preventive and curative maintenance operations). In this service approach, the products have an instrumental nature in the service, which can temporarily automate it under certain conditions, partially replacing the human actor.
Orange, for example, a historic telecommunications operator, now has a “Healthcare” division and is therefore becoming a new player in the field of e-health. By this logic, we can see that a company like Orange is now moving towards a strong logic of service portal.
In all cases ICT is present but the mobilization of projects follows a different course, for example
Grenoble: Approach by gerontological doctors
Rennes: Professional players in home care
Guérêt: Home automation players, technological approach
These three scenarios constitute another grid for reading projects by identifying the balance of a health, medico-social and technological approach.
The field of technological innovation serving the elderly is booming and a priority for many regions. In addition, as we have just seen, a large number of European projects, currently in progress, are directly related to this subject, such as the MonAMI and Soprano projects. These are large-scale projects with substantial budgets. We must therefore ask ourselves to what extent a new “local” project could fit into this large-scale landscape …
4.1.3 TARGETING THE EUROPEAN SCALE
An interesting opportunity is to join a European project, in order to benefit from a larger budget, technological creativity and communication. It must be emphasized that the minimum market to be considered is at European level.
“No French product which would target only the hexagon has the least chance of survival: the surface of the market of France represents a postage stamp compared to that of the world market and a patent which is limited to France can do nothing against almost immediate copying if the product is profitable ”
The state indirectly finances the dependence of the elderly. It acts in two areas mainly which we will detail in the following.
188.8.131.52 TAX ADVANTAGE
As part of the desire to develop personal services, the State has put in place various provisions (creation of signs, universal service employment checks, etc.). The main measure is the tax deduction granted when the person calls on services approved by the State (example: home help), which amounts to 50% of expenses with an annual ceiling of 12,000 deductible Euros. Tax benefits specifically concern the elderly …
184.108.40.206 FINANCING OF ANAH
This organization can grant grants for work in housing under various conditions. Thus for adaptation works made necessary by the dependence of one of the occupants, a subsidy can be granted. This financial assistance can reach up to 70% of the work and is capped at 8,000 Euros.
4.2.2 SOCIAL SECURITY
We distinguish the State from Social Security organizations because of their mode of financing, the former is mainly financed by taxes and the latter by social contributions.
4.2.3 THE GENERAL COUNCIL
The General Councils are central actors in the field of dependency and home care (competence in the field of social action). Skills serving the elderly have tended to strengthen, especially since the State delegated the management of the APA in 2002.
The General Council helps elderly people who wish to stay at home by promoting local services (remote assistance, portage of meals, home help, etc.).
220.127.116.11 The APA
The APA is a financial aid, intended for people over 60 years old in situation of dependence, most of which is devoted to home help. It is paid by the General Councils to people who have been individually assessed as dependent. This assessment is made on the basis of the AGGIR64 grid which makes it possible to diagnose the loss of autonomy. With this grid, people are classified into
resource groups: IRMs. Only the classification in GIR 1 to 4 gives the right to help since these are the groups where dependence is the most important. The allocation of the APA is not subject to means test but its calculation takes into account the income of the beneficiary.
The APA allows the funding of services that facilitate the home life of the elderly: remote alarm, portage of meals and intervention by professionals.
18.104.22.168 AID FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE HOUSING OF ELDERLY PERSONS
People over the age of 60, recognized as dependent, can benefit from aid of € 1,001 to carry out work to adapt their housing, according to the resource ceilings in force. The beneficiary can be the owner or tenant of his accommodation and the aid is integrated into the action plans established with the “Pact-Arim”
4.2.4 THE MUNICIPALITIES
They also have competence in social work with the elderly. They rarely grant aid to dependent persons but through the municipal public establishment, they very frequently manage services intended for them (reception establishment, home help service, etc.).
The term “Telemedicine” 66 has been used for several years, where medicine and therefore the medical profession are placed at the center of the system. We have observed for some time the disappearance of this term in favor of that of “Telehealth”.
Why this change in termination?
It is clear that through this new term, we are putting the “assisted person” (or the patient) at the center of the device, and no longer the medical profession. This also refers to a change of strategic attitude towards this new thematic of “health at a distance” where the patient himself becomes educated in his own health, in a logic of health education, constituting a prevention axis
It is therefore more obvious, at first to put the elderly person at the center of the system and to educate them about their own health, this concept is an integral part of a logic of home support. In the situation of a hospital at home, where we come back to a telemedicine pricipe as such.
In this section we will develop a proposed methodology for generating specifications for ICT products for home support. We will specify the service context that we use to define the specifications, then the main specific functions selected, and finally the social engineering methods to integrate the products developed as tools for home service work.
The proposal is to consider that the products developed are part of a service to the person by professionals in the business sector. The evolution of the service will depend on the degree of dependence of the person. In order to characterize a life trajectory dependent on dependence we define three archetypal situations:
– Daily Life Situation
– Home support situation
– Situation of hospitalization at home
The “daily life situation” is an ordinary life situation in which the person has a degree of autonomy which allows him to coordinate his activities in and with those around him. We can resume here the functional situations responding to the different needs of man:
– I live,
– I eat,
– I move,
– I take care of my body and my health,
– I’m dressing up,
– I have hobbies,
– I communicate,
– I’m educating myself,
– I team,
– I am a citizen,
– I finance myself and make sure.
The “Home Support situation” corresponds to a situation in which professionals support the dependent person in coordinating the actors helping him in his activities necessary for his vital needs.
The “home hospitalization situation” is an institutional situation in which the hospital takes care of home care, in coordination with professionals.
The transition from one situation to another evolves according to the degree of dependence and the state of health of the person, whether elderly or ordinary person.
The focus on the activities of the person at home leads to consider services as an economy of functionality. Defining the offers falling under the Functional Economy aims to take care of an expectation of a functional order from a customer (company or household), tending to substitute an offer of skills for an offer of products and leading companies to develop an integrated production of services and products, adapted to the client’s understanding of the function (“custom offer”).
The traditional services sector can be defined from the article by Georges DROUIN president Groupement des professions de services, extract from constructive review n ° 17, http://www.constructif.fr, article: The services, the future of the French economy, “The major service professions which are members of Medef, united since 1978 within the Service Liaison Committee, created in 2003 the Grouping of Service Professions (GSP) to bring together and represent the professions of services and support their development.
The GSP brings together five main activity groups: financial services (insurance, banking, ie 3% of employment), business services (advice, training, IT services: 20%), operational services (transport, logistics, temporary work , cleanliness, security, communication, fairs and shows, call centers: 40%), personal and personal services (hotels, traditional catering, fast food, tourism, property promotion and management, personal assistance, education: 30%) and services to communities (energy services, water distribution, waste collection, parking, public transport, catering: 7%). All of these activities bring together a million companies in France.
The GSP does not include in its perimeter the trade sector, because it operates on an economic model significantly different from that of service companies. Indeed, one of the common features of the latter is the preponderant share of the wage bill in turnover: service is above all men, clients, time, wages loaded with constraints. The development of service companies necessarily involves the creation of jobs … ”
The functionality economy proposes to substitute a logic of product ownership for a logic of rental or pooling of products necessary for the functionality sought in a perspective of sustainability of these shared goods. This approach separates traditional interventions in a transverse logic, mixing merchant and non-merchant, together with professional (habitat, social, industrial, medical, etc.). Home support is only possible through the juxtaposition of services provided by professionals, but also by the presence of neighbors, friends and family.
According to our description of the scope of home automation in the introductory chapter, we consider that two forms of services can exist, that oriented towards technical subsets, and those oriented towards the activities of the person at home, see figure next.
This model opens up fields of different possibilities combining logics of obtaining expected means with logics of expected results, and this, by using either artefactual means or human means at home.
Four types of services result from this typology:
– service in autonomy, the service provided is on the means necessary for the activities to ensure its functionality, is part of the traditional services (installation, maintenance, rental)
– accompanied service, the service rendered is in the context of activities that the person can no longer provide alone, requiring the physical assistance of a third person
– mediated service, the service provided remotely by means of artefactual or / and automatic intervention allowing the desynchronization of human resources intervening only on specific calls.
– relational, logical, club, portal or counter service connecting ecosystem players.
The following figure summarizes this description.
Figure 25 Typology of types of services in relation to home support and life trajectory
The functional specifications of the artefacts necessary for home care are to be considered from three points of view:
– a point of view of the need to take into account the evolution of housing according to dependence (equipment logic),
– a point of view of the tools and means of action of professional home care workers (instrumental logic)
– a point of view of the person and his entourage (functional logic).
These functional specifications are developed with the stakeholders involved as part of a global social engineering approach to the organization of home care.
Figure 26 Definition of a functional specification
Studies on uses show that technologies do not predetermine uses, and that the modes of appropriation depend on sociological and psychological elements of users, therefore they cannot be conceived independently of the actors concerned. The needs analysis must be carried out by questioning the actors involved to identify the activity systems by identifying expectations and desires, the organizational modes, the collaborations that coexist, the operating rules and the instruments / tools necessary for the activities. .
In a second step, networks of contradictions carrying blockages in the development of activities will have to be identified, which will be sources of acceptability of an accepted change in a new mode of organization of activities with a view to improving the difficulties encountered by actors. These reflexive approaches are moments of appropriation and recognition of skills facilitating the implementation of new modes of organization accepted by the greatest number, setting “good practices”.
Figure 27 Social engineering methodology of innovation.
The integration of new artefacts can only be carried out in the personal practices of people at home and their entourage, as well as in personal practices only if prior use tests are carried out, measuring both their perceived usefulness and their acceptability social and economic as well as their usability.
In a second step, the usage analyzes in the work situation will make it possible to realize the reality of the processes of appropriation of the devices thus conceived and their effectiveness in home care in an economic perspective acceptable by all the stakeholders. as well as the person losing autonomy.
These evaluations of products with a view to home service and these evaluations of actual uses in the practice of services require a specific organization to support change practices which bring together technological and social engineering skills, bringing together engineers and stakeholders in the field of work ergonomics and psychosocial organizations, as service economists.
The functional specifications thus developed must take into account environmental criteria. The technical solutions envisaged must be concerned with energy savings (heating, electricity, air conditioning, etc.), and must be in accordance with environmental standards.
These criteria will make it possible to label apartments, services and products “Housing, Home support services and Sustainable environment” for example.
The specifications take into account needs for:
Compensate for the loss of autonomy,
Help, control, act remotely on housing, Increase the security of goods and people, Maintain social ties, break isolation,
Facilitate communication between the different actors.
The development of the functional specifications is a privileged moment to bring together the actors of the same territory. It will take into account one or more of the typologies of services described, making it possible to ensure the scalability of the person’s dependency at home.
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